05:15, 24 липня 2024 року

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It is maybe the shortest history of Sokal in its history. To avoid detailed description of historical detours from town life in this section we will show the most important steps in history of Sokal. Later in section "Interesting Sokal" detailed we overview different topics from town life. We are planning to prepare some research works, and meanwhile we invite all volunteers to take part in preparation of these research works the topics of which are as follows "Strange word -Sokal", "Medieval Sokal", "Sokal pillboxes and II World War", "Sokal embroidery" and others.

Official excavations on the territory of Sokal and suburbs had revealed and proved that from ancient times people loved this territory. In Ukrainian historical pyramid there is no such archaeological period or settlement which was not recorded by archaeologists on Sokal territory. Thus, the date of foundation town is still debatable issue. But as a rule in history the age of town begins from its first written reminiscence.

So, not long ago Sokal people start to celebrate its birthday counting its age from year of 1377. However, this date describes the times of well populated town which had its significant meaning in history. For that period of time the town cradle was left bank of Zahidnyi Bug River. On the right bank of river there was a castle. Perhaps at the beginning it was small settlement with couple of houses. But castle construction which was built for borders fortification (even for the time being Sokal is borderland town) gave it acceleration for settlement of families on these territories which belonged to Belz duchy. In the castle during long time Mazovetz duke and Russian prince Zymovyt was used to live. He was husband of Olexandra, sister of Polish king Yagaila. Thus, in 1411 Zymovyt issued privilege for Busk town. And in 1424 Sokal town got Magdeburg right from Zymovyt who died in 1462 and Sokal in complement of Belz duchy lapsed to polish possessions. And suburbs with Sokal at the head created Sokal eldership (starostvo).

At the first view, polish kings had pretty good attitude to this ancient Russian town. Town got a lot of privileges which facilitated its development. But it was necessary assistance, as Sokal reiterated from destructive hostile assaults which lasted almost 20 years from 1499 until 1519 year. The last event roughly turned the historical way of town. On 2 August 1519 Polish-Ukrainian forces under the command of hetman M. Firleem and duke K. Ostrog suffered a definite defeat from Tatar army. Army commanders escaped and concealed in Sokal castle. Town was left for enemies marauding. Folk dictum: "vanished without a trace" or "to disappear from the face of the earth" are the exact expressions describing the real picture of Sokal after Tatar army left. Deep fright remained in memory of people together with smoke, swears and creaming and left alive wound among surviving people. And in 1524 town was shifted to the right bank of river Bug where it stands nowadays.

Enthusiastically right bank of Sokal was re-established and re-built. The black day of town was far away. But Tatar`s assaults continued and town faced material losses. Several fires also stopped town development. But despite of everything Sokal actively participates in world history. Thus in 1594 in the oldest St. Mykola`s church the session of Ukrainian church hierarchies was held discussing the union with Rome issue. In 1650 the construction of Sokal emblematic building of Bernardyn monastery started. In 1656 hetman B. Khmelnytsky visited our town that stopped with his camp near Valivka boundary. Hetman Khanenko camped near Sokal in 1672 and Swedish army in 1702. In 1704 on Babynets territories king Avgust II camped and in 1708 pole A. Senevsky camped here with Lithuanian army. Between the starving troops and numerous fires and despite of all privileges it was very hard for our town to develop its own way. And in 1830 town faced some prosperity. Sokal saw a lot of Polish noblemen from all Galychyna who came here to see and to feel our picturesque sokalsky Bug. Let`s say as resort which brought not only tourists but their money also and in this way Sokal fulfilled its budget and was able to restore old and to build modern buildings. In 1841 our town was expanded as suburb villages Babynzi and Kosyn were bought. And in 1885 first train arrived to Sokal. That event finally opened the gates to development. And before the end of XEX century Sokal was one of the 30th important town in Galychyna.

Sokal actively participated and in First World War. On 13 August 1914 Sokal was occupied by Russian troops under the command of general Ruzsky. In July 1915 Austrian troops under the command of general Mekkenzem had a battle with Russians and they moved front. In 1918 the 5th Sokal brigade of Ukrainian Galychyna Army took active part in battles for the destiny of West Ukrainian People`s Republic (Zakhidno Ukrainska Narodna Respublika). In 1919 Galychyna and Sokal became the part of Poland. In 1939 Sokal in complement of Western Ukraine (Zakhidna Ukraina) became the part of Soviet

Ukraine (Radyanska Ukraina) and Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics (Soyuz Radyanskyx Socialistykhnyx Respublik). And on 22 June 1941 Sokal faced fascist troops. Also active part Sokal population took in liberation struggle of OUN-UPA (ОУН - УПА). After the II World War completion and destruction of underground organization members, so called partyzany, Sokal faced communism triumph. And during the soviet times several industrial complexes were built in our town and it was the reason why people came to settle in Sokal and this fact led to broadening of the town territories. Speech of last general manager of USSR Mr. M. Gorbahev "PERESTRODCA" ("ПЕРЕСТРОЙКА") was heard also in Sokal. People actively participated in cultural-national liberation. And in 1991 Sokal became independent Ukrainian town in complement of new independent Ukraine.

Nowadays Sokal inhabits 30,000 people and it is green town on the bank of Zahidny Bug River. Town with its ancient history, with its houses and its owners. Everyone with their small histories - pieces of it`s cheerily heartbeats - SOKAL.